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Cytaty   ostatni miesiąc   wszystkie   all quatations, since 2014 Thx to: 3 Quarks Daily

We will develop new worlds
 …  David Chalmers has established himself as a leading thinker on consciousness
 …  Artificial general intelligence, A.G.I., is a system capable, like us humans, of performing open-ended tasks independent of specific problems or contexts — conversation, common-sense reasoning, experiential learning and so on.
 …  Deep learning is great for things we do perceptually as human beings — image recognition, speech recognition and so on. But when it comes to anything requiring autonomy, reasoning, decisions, creativity and so on, A.I. is only good in limited domains.
 …  40-to-100-year time frame
 …  “I know objectively that I’m just a collection of silicon circuits, but from the inside I feel like so much more.”
 …  Immanuel Kant thought that morality is part of rationality. There’s the thought that a superintelligent A.I. will turn into a super-moral one, that it will turn into a sort of Kantian being that will only take on goals it can universalize for everyone. That’s a very speculative view of how A.I. will be. /19-06-26


How Life Began on Earth?
 …  Jack Szostak (pronounced SHAH-stak)
 …  On a young, rocky planet, how might chemicals have come together in just the right way to form the very first cells? How did those primitive cells start behaving like life: growing, dividing, and passing on advantageous traits to the next generation?
 …  reconstruct in the lab the long pathway that led from chemicals in space, to Earth’s formation, to pre-life chemistry
 …  how it would grow and divide and start to replicate, and eventually evolve
 …  We may not know what actually happened, but maybe we can work out different possible paths
 …  Known as “directed evolution,” this process involved introducing mutations into the RNA
 …  how evolution got started all by itself on the early Earth
 …  three big fundamental scientific questions .. the origin of life, the origin of the universe, and the origin of the mind or consciousness
 …  earliest cells developed on land in ponds or pools, possibly in volcanically active regions. Ultraviolet light and lightning strikes
 …  volcanic activity could create hot and cold temperature fluctuations helpful for certain chemical reactions
 …  life might have started outside cells, with free-floating molecules encountering each other
 …  genetically encoded proteins are far too complex to have formed spontaneously on early Earth
 …  Maybe life didn’t start with RNA. Maybe there’s something simpler, easier to make, easier to replicate.
 …  “metabolism-first” hypothesis
 …  Szostak’s lab now focuses almost entirely on how primordial RNA might have copied itself.
 …  Our current model is that you start out with something that’s messy and has a lot of different variations in it, and over cycles of replication, you end up with something that’s closer to modern homogeneous RNA.
 …  I do hope to be able to build an evolving cellular system /19-06-26


Manuela Gretkowska: PLUS MINUS WOLNOŚĆ
 …  Śmieszy mnie bicie się polskiej inteligencji w pierś: nasza wina, tyle lat nie edukowaliśmy narodu, nie pochylaliśmy się nad maluczkimi. Gnojami, które zabierają nam wolność. Popatrzcie na nich w sejmie, na ich posłów
 …  Kiedy w Niemczech drugą siłą polityczną stają się Zieloni, u nas największym problemem jest czy starcy w sutannach poprą starca w paranoi. Młodzież, wszędzie indziej w ekologicznej awangardzie, u nas głosuje tylko w 25% i do tego większość na konserwatywnych idiotów.
 …  Ulubiona pieśń kościelna: „Dzięki nam uzyskaliście wolność”. A przez kogo straciliśmy ją na 200 lat? Co zrobiliście, żeby uratować wtedy Rzeczpospolitą, zamiast rozmiękczać ją w infantylnej Sarmacji? Wszystko, byle nie dopuścić do protestanckiej dyscypliny myślowej i moralnej. /19-06-25


Smok został pokonany pewnej nocy, przez dziecko albo przez dziewicę, nie wiemy tego na pewno, w każdym razie zdechł.
Adam Zagajewski, Solidarność i samotność str. 62 /19-06-24


Emotion AI
 …  artificial intelligence learns to interpret and respond to human emotion
 …  measures, understands, simulates, and reacts to human emotions
 …  affective computing, or artificial emotional intelligence
 …  The paradigm is not human versus machine — it's really machine augmenting human.
 …  Machines are very good at analyzing large amounts of data
 …  listen to voice inflections and start to recognize when those inflections correlate with stress or anger
 …  micro-expressions on humans’ faces that might happen even too fast for a person to recognize
 …  the technology uses the person’s phone or laptop camera to capture their reactions while watching a particular advertisement
 …  helps call center agents identify the moods of customers
 …  Mental health
 …  recognizing emotions in an African American face sometimes can be difficult for a machine that’s trained on Caucasian faces, /19-06-21


changing nature of war
 …  surveillance and other stealthy warcraft is given higher priority.
 …  But now America faces rivals, such as China, that match it technologically. For software, the Pentagon has urged Silicon Valley and other tech firms to overcome their ethical quandaries and help shield American forces from cyber-attacks, or develop machine learning to support them on the battlefield.
 …  hypersonic missiles, which combine velocity—travelling at five times the speed of sound—with pinpoint accuracy.
 …  It is better to fight the next war than the last one. /19-06-14


Radiocarbon dating can be done on microgram quantities
 …  the materials the artist used
 …  samples of a sufficient size
 …  Laura Hendriks of eth Zurich
 …  millionths of a gram
 …  a sample of paint weighing no more than 200 micrograms
 …  maybe not if their owners are unwilling to contemplate bad news /19-06-10


Cosmology, Sean Carroll
1. The Big Bang model is simply the idea that our universe expanded and cooled from a hot, dense, earlier state. We have overwhelming evidence that it is true.
2. The Big Bang event is not a point in space, but a moment in time: a singularity of infinite density and curvature. It is completely hypothetical, and probably not even strictly true. (It’s a classical prediction, ignoring quantum mechanics.)
3. People sometimes also use “the Big Bang” as shorthand for “the hot, dense state approximately 14 billion years ago.” I do that all the time. That’s fine, as long as it’s clear what you’re referring to.
4. The Big Bang might have been the beginning of the universe. Or it might not have been; there could have been space and time before the Big Bang. We don’t really know.
5. Even if the BB was the beginning, the universe didn’t “pop into existence.” You can’t “pop” before time itself exists. It’s better to simply say “the Big Bang was the first moment of time.” (If it was, which we don’t know for sure.)
6. The Borde-Guth-Vilenkin theorem says that, under some assumptions, spacetime had a singularity in the past. But it only refers to classical spacetime, so says nothing definitive about the real world.
7. The universe did not come into existence “because the quantum vacuum is unstable.” It’s not clear that this particular “Why?” question has any answer, but that’s not it.
8. If the universe did have an earliest moment, it doesn’t violate conservation of energy. When you take gravity into account, the total energy of any closed universe is exactly zero.
9. The energy of non-gravitational “stuff” (particles, fields, etc.) is not conserved as the universe expands. You can try to balance the books by including gravity, but it’s not straightforward.
10. The universe isn’t expanding “into” anything, as far as we know. General relativity describes the intrinsic geometry of spacetime, which can get bigger without anything outside.
11. Inflation, the idea that the universe underwent super-accelerated expansion at early times, may or may not be correct; we don’t know. I’d give it a 50% chance, lower than many cosmologists but higher than some.
12. The early universe had a low entropy. It looks like a thermal gas, but that’s only high-entropy if we ignore gravity. A truly high-entropy Big Bang would have been extremely lumpy, not smooth.
13. Dark matter exists. Anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background establish beyond reasonable doubt the existence of a gravitational pull in a direction other than where ordinary matter is located.
14. We haven’t directly detected dark matter yet, but most of our efforts have been focused on Weakly Interacting Massive Particles. There are many other candidates we don’t yet have the technology to look for. Patience.
15. Dark energy may not exist; it’s conceivable that the acceleration of the universe is caused by modified gravity instead. But the dark-energy idea is simpler and a more natural fit to the data.
16. Dark energy is not a new force; it’s a new substance. The force causing the universe to accelerate is gravity.
17. We have a perfectly good, and likely correct, idea of what dark energy might be: vacuum energy, a.k.a. the cosmological constant. An energy inherent in space itself. But we’re not sure.
17. We don’t know why the vacuum energy is much smaller than naive estimates would predict. That’s a real puzzle.
19. Neither dark matter nor dark energy are anything like the nineteenth-century idea of the aether. /19-06-06


Objective Morality?
 …  Morality is a form of social technology – it is context specific and can go out-of-date
 …  the history of Christianity also features people like John Calvin, who not only banned representations of God, but, like the Taliban, forbade dancing
 …  Extreme disagreements over what people consider morally permissible exist
 …  we seem to be wired to have the capacity for morality, while allowing for variability
 …  a more subtle and nuanced way to understand moral differences?
 …  Metaethics
 …  whether moral statements are even capable of being true or false.
 …  the study of morality from the point of view of game theory.
 …  Morality can be conceived of as a social technology that provides guidance on how people should behave when facing interdependent decision problems.
 …  to the greatest extent possible, given the existence of other people.
 …  Good Samaritan .. indirect reciprocity
 …  Morality, like other forms of technology, can result in competing, incompatible standards, each of which attempt to solve the same underlying social problems.
 …  antonym of objective is not relative, but subjective.
 …  universal human rights, international law, the importance of human dignity, individual autonomy, privacy, and freedom of speech, as well as tolerance and respect for others.
 …  equal treatment of men and women, and greater understanding and appreciation of the variation in sexual orientation. We have eliminated capital punishment, and no longer believe it acceptable to punish children by beating them. Yet these and many other gains are fragile. /19-06-06


Królem Ugandy był wtedy gej i pedofil ... męczennicy z Ugandy /Polskie Radio 2, Słowo na dzień, 6:55, 19-06-03


humans know more truths than any species on earth. Yet we also believe the most falsehoods.
 …  power means having the ability to manipulate objective realities: to hunt animals, to construct bridges,
 …  power also means having the ability to manipulate human beliefs,
 …  Earth was conquered by Homo sapiens .. because we are the only mammals that can cooperate in very large numbers.
 …  believing common stories. But these stories need not be true.
 …  completely fictional stories about God, about race or about economics.
 …  Rabbits don’t know that E=mc2 .. No rabbit would have been willing to crash an airplane into the World Trade Center in the hope of being rewarded with 72 virgin rabbits in the afterlife.
 …  whereas the truth is universal, fictions tend to be local.
 …  we want to distinguish our tribe from foreigners
 …  handicap principle, which says that reliable signals must be costly to the signaler. .. male peacocks signal their fitness to female
 …  If you believe your leader only when he or she tells the truth, what does that prove? In contrast, if you believe your leader even when he or she builds castles in the air, that’s loyalty!
 …  the truth is often painful and disturbing.
 …  presidential candidate who tells the American public the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth about American history has a 100 percent guarantee of losing the elections.
 …  Some might argue that the long-term costs of believing fictional stories outweigh any short-term advantages in social cohesion.
 …  they believe nonsense in some fields, while being eminently rational in others. /19-05-27


Fusion power is attracting private-sector
 …  the old joke that commercial fusion power is 30 years away—and always will be.
 …  “They’re all based on good physics. They’re all good people that are doing these programmes.” And the prize is enormous. If even one of the fusion startups succeeds, the world’s electricity supply will be guaranteed—and carbon free—for ever. /19-05-27


... ... ... 2014



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