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Piękna obecność znaczenia
Maria Anna Potocka w: Leon Chwistek. Nowe kierunki w sztuce, MOCAK, str. 73
/20-05-24


Chwistek jako logik uważał, że każdy nie sprzeczny układ danych wyznacza jakąś rzeczywistość. Dzisiaj można tę myśl sprecyzować, korzystając z twierdzenia Gödla-Malcewa o pełności. Powiada ono, że każdy niesprzeczny zbiór ma model. Jeśli utożsamimy modele z rzeczywistością (lub jej rodzajami), teza Chwistka, że każdy styl malarski związany jest z jakąś rzeczywistością, staje się parafrazą (zwracam uwagę na słowo „parafraza”, które nie znaczy, że mamy do czynienia z konsekwencją logiczną) twierdzenia matematyki.
Jan Woleński w: Leon Chwistek. Nowe kierunki w sztuce, MOCAK
/20-05-23


Roman Ingarden Filozof i fotograf, Maria Anna Potocka, str. 12
Estetyka Roman Ingardena wychodzi z założenia – dość powszechnego wśród polskich estetyków – że to artyści podążają za filozofią, a nie filozofia za sztuką. Estetyk ustala, czym jest sztuka i czym powinna być. To normatywne podejście nie jest groźne, ponieważ nie jest skuteczne i nie wpływa ani na artystów, ani na historyków sztuki. Natomiast jest ciekawym aktem kreacji. Można w nim znaleźć więcej emocji artystycznych niż właściwości filozoficznych. Stworzony zostaje przepis – wzorzec wartości i piękna. Taka kreatywność – unosząca się ponad dostępną w muzeach rzeczywistością sztuki – szczególnie zaskakuje w kontekście fenomenologii, której Ingarden jest ważnym przedstawicielem. Zaskakujące, że ten filozof wolał widzieć sztukę w sobie niż w tym, co istniało, czyli w twórczości artystów. Takie podejście bardziej pasuje do sztuki niż do filozofii. Zapewne na tym polu myśliciel przeistaczał się w twórcę, a właściwie w stwórcę.
/20-05-22


Karol Tarnowski: Nauki szczegółowe są bardzo, bardzo ubogie
W rozmowie z Zofią Zarębianką o Janie Pawle II, 17 maja 2020. Rozmowa transmitowana w Internecie przez Kluby Tygodnika Powszechnego, dla swoich członków. Cytat z pamięci. Notatka z dnia następnego, rano. Podwójne „bardzo” ma oddać zdecydowaną emfazę wypowiedzi.
Komentarz: nauki szczegółowe, jak się wydaje, są tu opozycją do filozofii. Być może należałoby (można by) dodać filozofii człowieka, albo i „personalizmu chrześcijańskiego w ujęciu Karola Wojtyły”. Owe nauki szczegółowe to, nie pozostaje nic innego, jak: matematyka, fizyka, biologia, i dalej, medycyna i psychologia z psychiatrią, a także technika oraz, ostatnia, ze względu na autora poniższej notatki, geologia. Na podstawie innych wypowiedzi Profesora, można przypuszczać, że do nauk szczegółowych nie zalicza się sztuka, a w szczególności sztuki plastyczne, ani muzyka. Zapewne mają wyższy status. Podobnie jak poezja i literatura.
/20-05-18


Is Evolutionary Psychology Possible?
 …  human behaviors can be explained in evolutionary terms and that the core units governing our actions haven’t changed since the Stone Age
 …  hard-wired cognitive structures that are operating in all of us contemporary human beings the same way they did for our ancestors on the savannas
 …  a match between our modules and the modules of the prehistoric ancestors
 …  evolutionary theory is the only game in town to give us accounts of biological questions
 …  while we might talk about similarity and ancestry with respect to normal physical phenotypes, I am reluctant to go there with behaviors. /20-05-15


Artificial General Intelligence
 …  David Chalmers .. is possible
 …  likely that we will soon have AI approximately as cognitively sophisticated as mice or dogs
 …  vast sums invested
 …  Our thinking involves not just some kind of simple on-off representation of things around us, but an entire emotional and value-laden involvement with the world itself. Computers have none of this.
 …  using formal logic .. failed to take account of the “fabulously rich and messy world we inhabit”
 …  “pre-given” ontology or structure for the world
 …  deep learning machines is their ability to detect patterns in large (sometimes huge) amounts of data
 …  Machine learning may not start with general rules which make ontological assumptions, but it does start with data that is already processed by humans
 …  AI machines are still tied up with the programmers’ own classifications of reality
 …  common sense cannot be captured in terms of the “rules and representations”
 …  correctly mapping an image onto a label: nothing more than that
 …  general intelligence is the general ability to solve cognitive problems
 …  Siri and Alexa do amazingly well in “recognizing” speech and synthesizing speech in response. But you very quickly get to the bottom of their resources and reach a “canned” response (“here are some webpages relating to your inquiry”).
 …  conversation is not an activity that has one easily expressible goal, and so the task for the Siri/Alexa programme cannot be specified in advance
 …  the human brain is just a complex biological (and therefore material) machine, it must be possible in principle to artificially reproduce what the human brain does
 …  the invention of the aeroplane did not require building something that flies in exactly the way a bird flies
 …  Watson can read millions of unstructured documents in seconds”. That’s not something we can do.
 …  AI .. splendid isolation from neuroscience
 …  two extremes: either that genuine artificial thinking machines are just on the horizon, or they are absolutely impossible in principle. /20-05-15


The self
 …  Nietzsche .. What we experience in our dreams ... is as much a part of the overall economy of our soul as anything we 'really' experience
 …  the self can be understood as,
i. reducible to part of the body (materialism),
ii. a soul distinct from the material body (dualism),
iii. a mind that creates what appears as matter (idealism), and
iv. the self can be understood as being at one with an extended body (processism).
The common view is undoubtedly i. and ii., the biological and the predominantly religious
 …  mind-matter view
 …  following Hume's .. the "self" to be an illusion of the mind
 …  Kant in response argues that though we cannot directly perceive the pure, underlying self, we must nonetheless assume it to exist (as "pure apperception") as that which holds all such experiences together as one – a bundle is a unity that, as such, must be tied.
 …  one can separate the conscious, the subconscious, and the self-conscious
 …  consciousness (awareness) of consciousness
 …  The self, for Nietzsche, can be both creator and creation.
 …  One may see oneself as the immortal centre of the universe, in Leibnizian fashion, or as a provisional, insignificant speck in the wider cosmos, a la Schopenhauer: "We can regard our life as a uselessly disturbing episode in the blissful repose of nothingness."
 …  memory .. a condition for maintaining a self-identity over time
 …  Psychedelics
 …  (often drug-induced) mystical state .. "when the characteristic sort of consciousness has set in, the mystic feels as if his own will were in abeyance, and indeed sometimes as if he were grasped by a superior power"
 …  One is at the mercy of .. another aspect of oneself .. not itself passive but excessively active
 …  Aldous Huxley .. "if you go to the antipodes of the self-conscious mind, you will encounter all sorts of creatures ... . You do not invent these creatures ... . They live their own lives in complete independence. A man cannot control them"
 …  "One" is at once both auditorium and stage. "One" is now "two", ad infinitum.
 …  experiences that are not memorized cannot be reported as phenomenological correlates
 …  "One" watches – or better, things are watched.
 …  it is this mnemonic river to which one normally identifies the self. But as mentioned, there may flow parallel streams which never hit this main river of the self – there may be many instances of extreme sentience that are not memorized.
 …  the speed of time is a child of the mind.
 …  The question of what the self is often presumes that there exists some definite boundary that we must decipher.
 …  the opening of individualization .. a sense of unity with that which we perceive
 …  The subject-object dichotomy evaporates
 …  Whitehead .. the subject's perception of an object is concretely part of that object .. organic realism
 …  Bradley .. "everything less than the Universe is an abstraction"
 …  The self under psychedelics is thus broken up, recreated, contracted, dilated, forgotten, reclaimed, de-culcated, sublimated, alienated, isolated, interfused, multiplied, unified, and eternalized. Psychedelics reap destruction upon the human condition, or from another angle, they heighten the human condition. Either way, the self is never the same again. /20-05-13


Głupota jest wszechobecna, a nikt się nie boi, że może się zarazić.
 …  Podobno w austriackiej armii, za Franciszka Józefa, obowiązywała następująca reguła: oficerów klasyfikuje się według dwóch cech – głupoty i lenistwa. Głupich i leniwych należy kierować do sztabu – przynajmniej zminimalizują się szkody, jakie sztab i tak zwykle wyrządza. A głupich i pracowitych – na pierwszą linię frontu...
 …  przenosi się całą aktywność w świat wirtualny. Ale wirusowi głupoty w to graj!
 …  Co więc zalecam? Nośmy maseczki. Żeby nie zarażać innych.
Michał Heller /PAUza nr 513 7 maja/20-05-10


Wolfram
 …  path to the fundamental theory of physics
 …  physicists are unconvinced
 …  computational picture of the cosmos .. computer code .. one step at a time
 …  Even when the underlying rules for a system are extremely simple, the behavior of the system as a whole can be essentially arbitrarily rich and complex
 …  they cannot make any definite, concrete new predictions
 …  Why not go the traditional route? /20-05-07


capitalism .. Hegel
 …  ever less regulated, “American-style” capitalism .. exploitative use of the power possessed by owners of capital
 …  the inherent injustice of a competitive system
 …  Platonic Socrates argued in the Republic, different types of regimes, including economic regimes, need to cultivate different types of souls
 …  Rousseau: Is life in a system of production generally defined by the division of and the sale of labor to private owners of capital who compete for market dominance a suitable or flourishing way to live for human beings?
 …  Hegel is known as a defender of bourgeois .. the evidence suggests that his answer to these questions is far more negative than is widely recognized
 …  material inequalities and the resulting systematic unfairness were important to him
 …  social bonds without which no society can survive
 …  Hegel .. Elements of the Philosophy of Right (1821)
 …  a human being can only be what it is, a free being, by participating in social institutions
 …  a unity of subjective and objective freedom
 …  Marx inherited from Hegel
 …  a Hegelian principle that is often not well understood: that no one individual can be said to be free unless all are /20-05-07


Totalitarianism
 …  Paul Krugman .. “The pandemic will eventually end” .. “but democracy, once lost, may never come back. And we’re much closer to losing our democracy than many people realize”
 …  totalitarianism-“that most horrible of inventions of the twentieth century”
 …  Fidel Castro’s Cuba to Vladimir Putin’s Russia
 …  right-wing populism
 …  authoritarianism
 …  Mussolini .. “all within the state, none outside the state, none against the state”
 …  Stalinism and Hitlerism .. diametrical opposition on the political spectrum
 …  Arendt .. totalitarianism has discovered a means of dominating and terrorizing human beings from within
 …  Arendt and Orwell described are systems of government that have never actually existed. Neither Nazism nor Stalinism succeeded in controlling or dominating its citizens from within
 …  Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy, published in 1956 by Carl Friedrich and Zbigniew Brzezinski
 …  China’s new social credit score .. But China’s .. market economy,
 …  Gestapo .. The Stasi was quite different .. totalitarianism, East Germany does not fit .. a welfare dictatorship, a participatory dictatorship, a thoroughly dominated society, a modern dictatorship, a tutelary state, and a late totalitarian patriarchal and surveillance state.
 …  a Cold War desire to classify fascist and communist dictatorships as essentially the same phenomenon
 …  And, indeed, the sophisticated data-mining techniques of Cambridge Analytica, which assisted the 2016 Trump campaign to manipulate voter choices, would have made the Stasi, the Gestapo, or the NKVD green with envy.
 …  totalitarianism’s usefulness as a distinctive category of government simply evaporates when we begin to look at all the ways in which technology has compromised individual privacy
 …  the destruction of the private sphere in the interest of the public good is precisely what theorists tell us lies at the heart of totalitarianism
 …  the idea of totalitarianism is a useless tool in assessing the decency of governance in any twenty-first-century state
 …  If we are to survive in this brave new world, in which technology makes it ever easier for governments to manipulate individual decisions, but in which we also demand that the state take an ever-larger role in ensuring our safety from ourselves, we must acknowledge that the Manichean worldview implied in the term totalitarianism is an outdated relic of the Cold War. /20-04-30


Adam Zagajewski
O podłości
Podłości nie da się mierzyć jak temperatury czy odległości, gdyby jednak istniał podłościomierz, to ostatnie działania naszej szanownej rządzącej partii i jej ponurego przywódcy znalazłyby się na samym skraju pomiarów.
Dążenie do głosowania w sytuacji, gdy nie mogło być żadnej kampanii wyborczej i gdy na majowych wyborach skorzystaliby tylko grabarze (jeden z nielicznych zawodów napychających sobie kieszenie w czasie pandemii), jest czymś niesłychanym, czymś, co musi budzić najżywszy protest ludzi dobrej woli.
Wyborcza/20-04-28


privacy
IF THE EU had an official religion, it would be privacy. A devout priesthood ofEU officials and politicians preach that only their privacy laws can lead to salvation. Holy texts, such as the General Data Protection Regulation or the ePrivacy Directive, are held up as wisdom the whole world would be better off following. Such is the regulatory clout of Brussels that much of it often does. Those who break such strictures are smitten (or whacked with fines of up to 4% of global turnover). In an age of coronavirus, as policymakers ponder ways of ending the lockdown, this belief is being tested.
 …  Privacy has a price
 …  Any trade-offs between health and privacy
The Econonimist, April 25th/Charlemagne/20-04-28


Unknowing Gerhard Richter: Painting ..
 …  “Pictures which are interpretable, and which contain a meaning, are bad pictures.” A good picture “takes away our certainty, because it deprives a thing of its meaning and its name. It shows us the thing in all the manifold significance and infinite variety that preclude the emergence of any single meaning and view.”
 …  Richter is contemporary art’s great poet of uncertainty; his work sets the will to believe and the obligation to doubt in perfect oscillation.
 …  There is no school of Richter. His output is too quixotic, too personal
 …  His foggy photo-paintings suggested an oxymoronic lugubrious Pop, the random color squares an ebullient Conceptualism, and his soft-focus landscapes and portraits channeled both the Sturm und Drang of German Romanticism and the cool distance of contemporary photography.
 …  Beuys had recently arrived with his mystical cult of personality, the Zero group was developing its language of impersonal geometries, and Informel (Europe’s attenuated answer to New York School abstraction)
 …  in Düsseldorf was Sigmar Polke
 …  Richter’s art-historical allegiances were laid bare: Caspar David Friedrich, Vermeer, Velázquez—painters with a gift for inviting us through the illusory window while showing us how the trick was played
 …  “to create a well-built, beautiful, constructive painting. And there are many moments when I plan to do just that, and then I realize that it looks terrible. Then I start to destroy it, piece by piece, and I arrive at something that I didn’t want but that looks pretty good.”
 …  composition becomes the joint product of accumulation and knowing when to stop.
 …  I am more interested in pictures than in painting.
 …  The story always changes with the telling. Uncertainty is truth. /20-04-26


... ... ... 2014


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