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Cytaty   ostatni miesiąc   wszystkie   3 Quarks Daily

Biology’s next great horizon is to understand cells, tissues and organisms as agents with agendas (even if unthinking ones)
 …  Biologists .. scientific behaviourists, explaining and predicting the ways that proteins, organelles, cells, plants, animals and whole biota behave under various conditions
 …  causal mechanisms
 …  any discredited teleology or imputation of reasons and purposes or understanding to the cells
 …  brains are physical minds – not mysterious dualistic minds – processing information
 …  Genes weren’t really selfish, antibodies weren’t really seeking
 …  little biological mechanisms weren’t really agents with agendas, even though thinking of them as if they were often led to insights
 …  ‘You think we shouldn’t anthropomorphise people?’
 …  teleophobia
 …  only metaphorical ‘as if’ goals
 …  naive binary distinction for a continuum of how much agency any system has
 …  Evolution by natural selection has done – and is still doing – all that refining and focusing and differentiating work. We’re all just physical mechanisms made of physical mechanisms obeying the laws of physics and chemistry. But there is a profound difference between the ingenious mechanisms designed by human intelligent designers – clocks and motors and computers, for instance – and the mechanisms designed and assembled by natural selection.
 …  We are still pretty poor at controlling anatomical structure .. this is why we don’t have a real regenerative medicine yet
 …  genomic editing approaches won’t have a clue what genes to edit
 …  representing anatomical target .. when one takes seriously that the collective has an information-processing, not just mechanical, level of analysis
 …  David Marr Vision (1982)
 …  cells .. are born, they apparently take care of their own further development
 …  Detectors and signals and feedback loops .. But there is a difference .. individual cells are not just building blocks .. they have extra competences that turn them into (unthinking) agents that, thanks to information they have on board .. large-scale projects that they needn’t understand
 …  Agents, in this carefully limited perspective, need not be conscious, need not understand, need not have minds, but they do need to be structured to exploit physical regularities that enable them to use information
 …  the cone cell’s knowledge is myopic in the extreme. Its Umwelt is microscopic. It’s an idiot savant
 …  Dennett’s book Darwin’s Dangerous Idea (1995)
 …  an inversion of this familiar idea; the point is not to anthropomorphise morphogenesis – the point is to naturalise cognition.
 …  real cognition is what brains do, and what happens in biochemistry only seems like it’s doing similar things. We propose an inversion of this familiar idea/bold by AW; the point is not to anthropomorphise morphogenesis – the point is to naturalise cognition.
 …  Tissues, organs, brains, animals and swarms form various kinds of minds that can reach for bigger goals
 …  there is little fundamental difference between neurons and other cell types
 …  The central point about cognitive systems .. (.. animals, cells .. AI .. alien life) is what they know how to detect, represent as memories, anticipate, decide among and – crucially – attempt to affect.
 …  It’s all about goals
 …  belonging to a larger, unified self
 …  the tiny cognitive contribution of a single cell to the cognitive projects and talents of a lone human .. tribe
 …  the whole cosmos and even the abstract spaces of mathematics, poetry and music
 …  Instead of treating human ‘genius’ as a sort of black box made of magical smartstuff, we can reinterpret it as an explosive expansion of the bag of mechanical-but-cognitive tricks discovered by natural selection over billions of years. /20-10-15

Proteins CIEQSFTTLFACQTAAEIWRAFGYTVKIMVDNGNCRLHVC these forty letters are a set of instructions for building a sophisticated medical device .. smaller than the virus on which it operates
 …  Proteins .. do most of the work of life. Antibodies .. are proteins. So are hormones .. enzymes
 …  A protein is a large molecule built from smaller molecules called amino acids. Our bodies use twenty amino acids to create proteins; our cells chain them together, following instructions in our DNA.
 …  CI.. cysteine and isoleucine
 …  Designer proteins .. cure diseases .. new kinds of materials and electronics .. create and transform life itself
 …  Protein design is hard for lots of reasons. Evolution has had billions of years to explore, by trial and error
 …  Nature .. using the ultimate parallel-processing computer: the universe.
 …  RosettaCommons .. “sampling method” and an “energy function”
 …  a system of directed evolution
 …  developing A.I. to do the selecting
 …  trying to change the way that technology and engineering on the molecular scale are done in biology /20-09-25

Noam Chomsky
 …  concern for the COVID-19 crisis is virtually all-consuming. That’s understandable. It is severe and is severely disrupting lives. But it will pass, though at horrendous cost, and there will be recovery. There will not be recovery from the melting of the arctic ice sheets and the other consequences of global warming.
 …  Trump and his courtiers take pride in leading the race to destruction
 …  people who breathed dirtier air were about twice as likely to die from the infection
 …  Dismantling capitalism is impossible in the time frame that we have for taking urgent action
 …  The Green New Deal is the only approach to climate stabilization also capable of reversing rising inequality and defeating global neoliberalism and ascendant neofascism
 …  the old is dying and the new cannot be born; in this interregnum, a great variety of morbid symptoms appear /20-09-20

Popularyzacja nauki PAUza Akademicka nr. 523
 …  większość publicystów .. ma nikłe pojęcie o tym, co to jest metoda naukowa badania rzeczywistości
 …  Scientia PAUperum
 …  jakie są tutaj dopuszczalne granice uproszczeń .. w którym momencie stają się szkodliwe
 …  1933, Stanisław Loria, fizyk .. Bardzo szkodliwe jest mniemanie, że do napisania artykułu lub książki popularnonaukowej niepotrzebna jest gruntowna wiedza fachowa, lecz wystarczy dość powierzchowna znajomość przedmiotu .. O wiele łatwiej jest napisać dobry referat naukowy, przeznaczony dla uczonych, aniżeli dobry artykuł lub wykład popularny dla laików. .. Krzykliwe tytuły, jaskrawe przeciwstawienia, reklamiarska przesada, facecje i kpiarstwo .. do uśpienia czujności lękliwego czytelnika, który by w panicznym strachu uciekł przed nudą wykładu .. Nie wierzę jednak w skuteczność i celowość takiej „popularyzacji” /20-09-18

capitalism isn't working. Here's an alternative
 …  future transformed by Covid-19
 …  democratic socialism
 …  Margaret Thatcher .. There is no alternative
 …  when the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 .. social democrats, Keynesians and Marxists alike .. in 2008, with Lehman’s collapse
 …  how democratic socialism could work today, with our current technologies and despite our human failings
 …  precisely how would things – like money, companies and housing – work?
 …  Another Now .. a Marxist-feminist, a libertarian ex-banker and a maverick technologist
 …  central banks provide every adult with a free bank account into which a fixed stipend (called universal basic dividend) is credited monthly
 …  People receive two types of income: the dividends credited into their central bank account and earnings from working in a corpo-syndicalist company. Neither are taxed
 …  All trade and all money movements between different monetary jurisdictions (eg the UK and the eurozone or the US) are denominated in a new digital accounting unit, called the Kosmos. /20-09-17

brains have evolved to the point where we can build artificial brains that might help us understand our brains
 …  novel insights and deep analyses enabled by smart instruments and machine learning
 …  revolutionized workflows
 …  DNA .. researchers have not yet succeeded in demonstrating a route from raw chemical materials to those crucial macromolecules
 …  a sort of self-motivation to replicate .. the dawn of intelligence
 …  self-driving microscopes
 …  can conceive of, build, and manipulate models of itself
 …  The master is becoming the student. /20-09-17

... ... ... 2014