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Tekst: Derrida 46

Cytaty   ostatni miesiąc   wszystkie   all quatations, since 2014 Thx to: 3 Quarks Daily

deep-learning AIs are so easy to fool
 …  facial-recognition systems by sticking a printed pattern on glasses or hats
 …  from automated telephone systems to user recommendations on the streaming service Netflix
 …  brilliant at what they do until, taken into unfamiliar territory, they break in unpredictable ways
 …  hacker could use these weaknesses
 …  to augment pattern-matching DNNs with extra abilities: for instance, making AIs that can explore the world for themselves, write their own code and retain memories
 …  DNNs do not actually understand the world
 …  by altering a few pixels .. ‘adversarial examples’
 …  It’s a type of mistake we would not have imagined would happen.
 …  With great power comes great fragility
 …  DNN should not change its output as a result of small changes in its input, and that this property might be mathematically incorporated into the network
 …  “We know from prior experience which features are the salient ones” .. “And that comes from a deep understanding of the structure of the world.”
 …  symbolic AI .. hard-coded rules about how the world worked .. rule-based AI
 …  Learning about causality needs to be done by agents that do things in the world, that can experiment and explore
 …  manipulate the world and create their own data through their own actions
 …  Over several days of non-stop sifting, the robot starts to get a feel for these alien objects and what it can do with them.
 …  gives an AI a much richer understanding of objects and the world in general
 …  A baby doesn’t learn by downloading data from Facebook
 …  Learning how to learn .. AI was guided in how best to learn from its environment .. next step in AI will be to give DNNs the ability to write their own such algorithms, rather than using code provided by humans /19-11-27


/New Yorker/19-11-23


Black Holes .. a misstep in Stephen Hawking’s
 …  The laws of quantum mechanics insist that information about the past is never lost
 …  a bridge to the black hole’s interior, an escape route for trapped data
 …  spying on a black hole from a higher dimension
 …  holography
 …  information should safely escape black holes
 …  the black hole interior became geometrically linked to portions of the exterior
 …  outgoing black hole radiation may look random to a passing astronaut doing simple experiments but rigorous study would reveal subtly hidden information
 …  a detailed account of how it is encoded in the radiation is still lacking
 …  not an operational description for how to extract the information
 …  the hologram within a hologram /19-11-22


Beetles Navigate Via the Milky Way, First Known in Animal Kingdom
 …  dung beetles .. Scarabaeus satyrus .. the first known species to do so
 …  The tiny insects can orient themselves to the bright stripe of light generated by our galaxy
 …  already knew .. detecting a symmetrical pattern of polarized light that appears around the sun
 …  could still roll a ball in a straight line even on moonless nights
 …  Johannesburg Planetarium
 …  2013
 …  [aw: żuk gnojowy widzi drogę mleczną (korzysta z tego), jako jedyne zwierzę, poza człowiekiem] /19-11-21


Self-Consciousness
 …  how we can fit consciousness, or the mind, into a mindless universe
 …  how can we know ourselves as knowers
 …  If I'm conscious of consciousness, if I'm consciously thinking about thinking, I change the state that I'm targeting
 …  Superintelligence is a threat to us, therefore, we urgently need to figure out who that is: us.
 …  minimal neural correlate of consciousness
 …  a human being is the kind of animal that sometimes leads a life in light of the question of how it fits into the mindless universe
 …  Some people mistakenly believe that they have an immortal soul .. Billions of people
 …  Other people think that they are sophisticated killer apes designed to spread their genes.
 …  evolutionary psychologist who thinks that mental states are fundamentally adapted
 …  Humans are not just any old animal, they are animals trying very hard not to be animals.
 …  our whole conscious mental life is a kind of illusion
 …  postmodern confusion
 …  "continental/European" and "analytic" philosophy
 …  How do I know that I'm not in a simulation?
 …  brutal idealism, according to which our minds are transcendent affairs that mysteriously peep into the universe
 …  New Realism
 …  There is actual objectivity.
 …  there is no single overall theory for all the facts
 …  The continuum hypothesis in mathematics is not solved by a physical theory of everything because numbers are not physical objects; you cannot investigate them with experiments, you cannot causally interfere with them in order to measure their behavior.
 …  Numbers are not spatiotemporally located.
 …  Quine suggested that ontology should not be metaphysics /19-11-20


Neutrinos .. Basic Math
 …  the strange behavior of .. neutrinos
 …  eigenvectors
 …  the physicists could hardly believe they’d discovered a new fact about such bedrock math
 …  differences in the behavior of neutrinos and antineutrinos could be what allows matter to dominate over antimatter in the universe
 …  three-by-three matrix describes these oscillations
 …  CP violating phase /19-11-17


John von Neumann The Unparalleled Genius of John von Neumann
 …  It is indeed supremely difficult to effectively refute the claim that John von Neumann is likely the most intelligent person who has ever lived. /19-11-17


cleverer, better-looking children genetic profiling
 …  “playing God”
 …  a child optimised with the best-available genetic profile for a long and healthy life
 …  Single-nucleotide polymorphism (snp, or “snip”) profiling
 …  height and, more controversially, intelligence
 …  generation on generation, to improve grandchildren and great-grandchildren still further
 …  snps are the smallest possible differences between individuals’ dna—single genetic letters.
 …  assortative mating .. intelligent, successful (and therefore probably rich) people seek each other out as partners
 …  Piled generation on generation, however, it really might create a genetic elite.
 …  “Brave New World” /19-11-13


Now, we’re in quite a different era.
 …  artificial intelligence .. quantum machine learning, but .. a little perspective about Moore’s law
 …  not that Moore’s law is ending, but it’s fragmenting into a variety of different kinds of systems
 …  Field-programmable gate arrays .. Neuromorphic computation
 …  analog versus digital .. quantum mechanics is both analog and digital
 …  by far the largest amount of information processing going on in the human body is not in the brain .. on at the level of DNA and RNA, which is the ultimate digital forum for information, because quantum mechanics makes nature digital
 …  a certain number of types of atoms, which combine to make a large but countable number of molecules. They can be in different places. Somewhere, billions of years ago, living systems figured out how to harness this very microscopic digital nature of nature into encoding genetic information into DNA and RNA, and into the receptor dynamics and the receptors in cells.
 …  genetic reproduction in a cell .. there are 1018 operations per second .. the brain has roughly 1011 neurons, 1015 synapses, and is going at 100 hertz—that’s only 1017 operations per second .. This has been going on for billions of years.
 …  Silicon Valley billionaires seem to believe that the singularity is there and that they themselves will be uploading their consciousness into a computer sometime in the near future
 …  if you uploaded yourself to the cloud, even if it were entirely successful and you found yourself as yourself in the cloud but unable to go out for a cappuccino, you might feel that you’d struck a Faustian bargain by definition
 …  One of the ways that we achieve immortality is by having close relationships with other people—by getting married .. that was too much trouble, even having a girlfriend .. rather upload himself into the cloud than actually have a girlfriend. That was a much easier process.
 …  vast amounts of information processing power—that, in the not-so-distant future .. likely to happen in the next half century or so, though it’s not going to be by a von Neumann architecture. It’s going to have to be by a variety of different methods.
 …  our possession of human language .. to think and communicate .. a cooperative power as a global organism
 …  the way people use their memory, given that they have immediate access to Internet search, changes a lot
 …  quantum computers .. simulating other physical systems, an application proposed by Richard Feynman
 …  deep neural networks, or Boltzmann machines, or deep learning that if you build a device that can generate certain kinds of statistics, it can often be used to recognize similar kinds of patterns
 …  find patterns in nature for things that you could never do on a classical computer
 …  Even with Google’s 50-qubit superconducting quantum computer, you could in principle diagonalize a 1012 by 1012 matrix, something which would take Avogadro’s number of operations ordinarily, and you’re not going to do that classically for quite a while.
 …  the machine with a true element of randomness was different than a classical machine; it just wasn’t different in the way that was helpful
 …  neurons and synapses are noisy because there are small numbers of chemicals
 …  The best strategies then are these probabilistic strategies.
 …  there have been scientific applications where pseudorandom numbers ran into trouble
 …  Once you start pressing Moore’s law, your systems are going to be noisy .. to be quantum mechanical .. semiquantum .. semicoherent .. will be the most powerful computers that you could build, where you have to deal with noise and you have to deal with quantum mechanics.
 …  what’s the difference between a neural net that’s been trained and a program that’s been written into memory
 …  computers .. if we socialize them .. they then are part of our human intelligence and not separate from it in the same way that books are not separate from our intelligence
 …  /Edge/19-11-04


Musical Octaves Are Learned, Not Wired in the Brain
 …  Singing experiments with residents of the Bolivian rainforest
 …  We need to understand that interplay between our genes and our experience
 …  the perceived organization of musical pitches into octaves is a cultural artifact
 …  Musical systems around the world and across historical eras have been diverse, but octaves are commonly a feature of them.
 …  Tsimané volunteers to listen and sing. A machine played two notes, one after the other, and the subject would sing them back into a microphone. The researchers played pairs of notes different distances apart on the scale and in different pitch ranges.
 …  Neuroscience has offered few concrete ideas about how octave equivalence might operate in the brain, but the physical basis for octaves made it seem credible to many researchers that our perception of them might be hard-wired into the auditory cortex.
 …  how much of our behavior and perception is innate /19-11-01


Ethical research
 …  Darwin .. morality and ethics could have no basis in nature, because nature had no purpose
 …  controversial biomedical applications such as organ transplants and in vitro fertilization (IVF)
 …  the first encyclopaedia of bioethics, published in 1978
 …  a higher quality of life could now be worth dying for
 …  Today .. from gene-edited babies and neurotechnology to dish-grown organoids and nanobots, the fraught relationship between society and research is once again front and centre.
 …  Much basic science is privately funded and therefore secretive.
 …  mergers between machine learning and biological synthesis raise additional concerns
 …  successful international regulation are rare
 …  CRISPR twins, synthetic neurons and self-driving cars
 …  The field no longer relies on philosophically derived mandates codified into textbook formulas.
 …  pragmatic instruments
 …  three-parent embryos
 …  the moral status of the human embryo, in favour of a sentimental concession
 …  the moral idea of society
 …  Today, interdisciplinary expertise plus extensive and creative public consultation increasingly define a new approach to ethical science. .. far beyond that of bioethicists and philosophers
 …  fake news, the new holy grail is the ability to create trustworthy systems for governing controversial research such as chimeric embryos and face-recognition algorithms
 …  expert knowledge and reliable data are essential but never enough to enable enduring, humane governance to emerge
 …  It turns out that what we have in common is less a single biological essence — or the ability to alter it — than a shared responsibility for human and non-human futures. /19-10-31


Decline of Christianity In U.S., at Rapid Pace
 …  Pew Research Center
 …  atheist, agnostic or “nothing in particular,” now stands at 26%, up from 17% in 2009
 …  Both Protestantism and Catholicism are experiencing losses
 …  Large generation gap in American religion /19-10-31


transition from quantum to classical objects
 …  A quantum-computing algorithm .. opens a new window on the connection between the quantum and classical worlds
 …  A quantum system lacking interference can be described using classical rules rather than quantum ones. The newly developed algorithm searches out interference-free solutions, known as consistent histories
 …  For systems of a few atoms, finding consistent histories is fairly trivial. For systems made up of many pieces, however, quantum-to-classical transition calculations are notoriously difficult to solve.
 …  Similar to how an atom exists as a quantum cloud rather than at a single point, data in a quantum computer is not a single number but a superposition of many numbers.
 …  quantum computers powerful enough to solve meaningful problems don’t exist just yet /19-10-31


quantum supremacy
 …  a quantum computer that solved an incredibly hard problem in 200 seconds — a problem the world’s fastest supercomputer would take 10,000 years to solve
 …  a traditional supercomputer could solve the problem in 2.5 days, not 10,000 years
 …  to crack the toughest security protocols
 …  what it does or what it’s used for
 …  Actually, on and off aren’t really words that make sense in quantum physics.
 …  superposition
 …  entangled
 …  the smallest particles in nature don’t really exist in a point in space but they exist as a probability of existing
 …  a single qubit can contain exponentially more information than a normal bit
 …  Quantum computers don’t really do anything practical yet.
 …  The test problem Google ran .. to see if a random number generator was truly random.
 …  to use quantum computers to simulate the frenzied world of quantum mechanics and better understand it
 …  design new chemical reactions /19-10-30


Why poetry matters
 …  we need the right words in order to survive
 …  speech that can survive
 …  turning noise into music
 …  liberates the reader (and writer) from a “prefabricated world”
 …  sterile debates over “high art” and “popular art”
 …  our actual encounter with the animal world, especially wild animals, is shrinking at an unprecedented rate (remember the recent press stories about junior dictionaries that no longer include the names of wild flowers or common birdlife)
 …  our passion to “understand” poetry may derive from “a middle-school confusion of literature and theology”
 …  why this or that writer or group of writers is absent (in an ideal world, I’d have liked to hear more from Poland, from Czesław Milosz and Wisława Szymborska)
 …  a serious analysis of the various sorts of “noise” around us that need turning into music
 …  The Music of Time: Poetry in the Twentieth Century, John Burnside /19-10-30


... ... ... 2014



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