starsze: Lech Wałęsa Kluby Tygodnika Powszechnego Problem zła Umbria ZNAK 70 Marsz Pamięci i Życia wszystkie: wydarzenia
Cytaty, ostatni miesiąc (tu są wszystkie, większą czcionką)
algorithms .. aliens … could humans ever understand minds that are radically unlike our own? … human minds, in all their variety, are not the only sorts of minds … chimpanzees, crows … life-forms that have evolved elsewhere in the Universe … artificial intelligence … intelligence ‘measures an agent’s general ability to achieve goals in a wide range of environments … conscious exotica … the possibility of forms of consciousness so alien that we would not recognise them … following Ludwig Wittgenstein, to reject the dualistic idea that there is an impenetrable realm of subjective experience that forms a distinct portion of reality … nothing is hidden … what it is like to be a bat … This supports the dualist’s claim … I am a human, not a bat … biocentrism … to flirt once more with the dualistic thought that there is a hidden order of subjective facts … whether it is like anything at all to be an X … the extent to which a system is, in a specific information-theoretic sense, more than the sum of its parts … David Chalmers, to a metaphysically weighty division between inner and outer – in short, to a form of dualism … vegetative-state patients using an fMRI … Ava .. Garland Test … the study of a mechanism can only complement observation and interaction, not substitute for it … Indeed, no machine, no robot or computer program yet exists that could plausibly be ascribed any capacity for consciousness at all. … Roomba is a fully autonomous robot … Mistake was on move 79, but #AlphaGo only came to that realisation on around move 87 … Its ability to respond effectively to subtle board patterns replicates what is often called intuition in top human players. … creativity … human-level artificial general intelligence (AGI) … whole brain emulation … mind children .. Moravec … AlphaGo is capable of taking both its programmers and its opponents by surprise … philosophical impasse … Solaris (1961) by Stanislaw Lem … Some facet of reality might be empirically inaccessible to us, but nothing is hidden as a matter of metaphysics. … our language and practices could change in unforeseeable ways to accommodate encounters with exotic forms of intelligence. … Monolithic concepts such as consciousness might break apart … We might well create autonomous, human-level artificial intelligence in the next few decades. … the most profound philosophical projects we can undertake. It is also a neglected one. /16-10-21
Arrow Of Time … traveling from the past to the present and into the future … the equations that govern reality don’t have a preference for which way time flows … the arrow of time and a quantity called entropy … It’s the only law of physics that appears to have a preferred direction for time. … So where does the arrow of time that correlates with our perception come from? We don’t know. … Nobody, in fact, understands what will. /16-10-16
Universe has ten times more galaxies … The observable Universe contains about 2 trillion galaxies … (AW: 2*1012) … galaxies out to distances of 4 billion parsecs (13 billion light years) … theorists had expected the number to be even higher … the current number of galaxies that actually exist now is expected to be much lower than 2 trillion /16-10-16
Precambrian Research … Tubular microfossils from 2.8 to 2.7 Ga-old lacustrine deposits of South Africa: A sign for early origin of eukaryotes? … Józef Kaźmierczak, Barbara Kremer, Wladyslaw Altermann, Ian Franchi … Archean eukaryotic life … exceptional preservation … to modern siphonous (coenocytic) .. microalgae … our knowledge of early life … evolution of life /16-10-16
Pabjan, Tadeusz, Anatomia konfliktu, Między nowym ateizmem a teologią nauki … W perspektywie teologicznej wszystko zawdzięcza swoje istnienie Bogu i nie widać żadnej racji za tym, by Stwórca miał powoływać do istnienia jedynie byty materialne, które wykazują podatność na testy empiryczne. … problem jest wieloaspektowy i interdyscyplinarny i w związku z tym … Księga Natury, z której można poznawać Boga równie skutecznie jak z tekstów biblijnych … Nawet dogmaty wiary, w swojej warstwie interpretacyjnej, podlegają ewolucji … wszechświat nie jest chaosem /16-10-14
Andrzej Wajda, Towering Auteur of Polish Cinema, Dies at 90 … The New York Times … But the biggest problems he faced were the practical ones of government disapproval, and sometimes outright censorship, before Poland rid itself of Communist control. … He quoted Mr. Walesa himself, when he ran for president of Poland, to describe his own feelings about making the film. “I don’t want to,” he said, “but I have to.” /16-10-10
Philosophy Lost Its Way
… institutionalization of philosophy
… one of the enduring failures of contemporary philosophy
… Socratic wisdom, which highlights the role of the philosopher as the non-expert, the questioner
… development of the natural sciences, as a field of study clearly distinct from philosophy, circa 1870
… grand unity of knowledge
… increasing specialization
… Philosophers could serve as
1) synthesizers of academic knowledge production;
2) formalists who provided the logical undergirding for research across the academy;
3) translators who brought the insights of the academy to the world at large;
4) disciplinary specialists who focused on distinctively philosophical problems in ethics, epistemology, aesthetics and the like; or
5) as some combination of some or all of these.
… Philosophy adopted the scientific modus operandi of knowledge production, but failed to match the sciences in terms of making progress in describing the world. … to match the cognitive success of the sciences … We, too, produce research articles. We, too, are judged by the same coin of the realm: peer-reviewed products. We, too, develop sub-specializations far from the comprehension of the person on the street. In all of these ways we are so very “scientific.” … essentially interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary in nature … a Philosopher ought to be something greater and better than another man … There was a brief window when philosophy could have replaced religion as the glue of society; but the moment passed. People stopped listening as philosophers focused on debates among themselves. … Like the sciences, philosophy has largely become a technical enterprise, the only difference being that we manipulate words rather than genes or chemicals. … to be smart, not good. It has been the heart of our undoing /16-10-10
Deep Learning Is Going to Teach Us … Go has officially fallen to machine, just as Jeopardy did before it to Watson, and chess before that to Deep Blue. … a clear signal … we are entirely unprepared … All work can be divided into four types: routine and nonroutine, cognitive and manual. … Big Data … unlike us, it can then sort through millions of images within a matter of seconds … Amelia .. She can learn in seconds what takes us months, and she can do it in 20 languages. .. she can put 250 million people out of a job, worldwide … Viv … These are questions we need to start asking, and fast. … Decoupling Income From Work … universal basic income … a car that can drive for us … jobs are for machines, and life is for people /16-10-10
Karl Marx … ideas may help us to understand the economic and political inequality … The new modes of production, communication, and distribution had also created enormous wealth. But there was a problem. The wealth was not equally distributed. … the middle class began sinking to the level of the working class … Marx did, in later years, speculate about the possibility of a peaceful transition to communism … After 1917, communism was no longer a utopian fantasy. … Marx had less money to waste than historians have assumed, and he accepted poverty as the price of his politics. … Marx was an Enlightenment thinker: he wanted a world that is rational and transparent … We created God, and then pretended that God created us. … Otherwise, like the members of the Islamic State today, we become the tools of our Tool. … it’s hard to know what lies on the other side of historical change … Thomas Piketty says about Marx … The Depression and the two world wars had effectively wiped out the owners of wealth, but the thirty years after 1945 rebooted the economic order. … Marx was correct that there is nothing naturally egalitarian about modern economies … Sanders’s proposals to reduce inequality are straight out of Piketty: tax wealth and give more people access to knowledge. … Money matters to people, but status matters more /16-10-10
Planet at its hottest in 115,000 years thanks to climate change … during an interglacial era, when sea level was 6-9 meters higher than today … the world has heated up at a rate of 0.18C per decade over the past 45 years … There’s a misconception that we’ve begun to address the climate problem … hundreds of trillions of dollars. It’s potentially putting young people in charge of a situation that is beyond their control … fossil fuel companies should be forced to pay for emissions extraction in the same way the tobacco industry … carbon dioxide levels will not drop below the symbolic 400 parts per million (ppm) mark in our lifetimes – the highest concentration of CO2 since the Pliocene era 3m years ago /16-10-07
UTOPIANS … Not long ago, utopianism was a mark of naiveté or extremism; now pragmatists are denigrated for complacent cynicism. … sordid realities of human nature … “Innumerable millions of human beings were killed in this century in the name of utopia,” the Polish poet Czesław Miłosz … dystopia .. too bad to be practicable … Noww the tide may have shifted … America’s nineteenth-century intentional communities … “a deficit of imagination” in our era … that things will only get worse if we don’t engage in some serious utopian thinking … “Big Oil, Big Coal, Big Agra, Big Pharma” and the “corporate vandals” who “pollute the commons.” … the rejection of capitalism and individualism … a softer version of Communism … 1850 Oneidan pamphlet titled “Slavery and Marriage: A Dialogue” … society seemed like something to be invented, rather than merely endured … they never reached a critical mass … Wisława Szymborska … Utopias are, in the philosopher Leszek Kołakowski’s phrase, “anti-human.” … “Four Futures: Life After Capitalism” … tyranny of high expectations … meliorism /16-10-07
Wyspa na której wszystko się wyjaśnia.
Tu można stanąć na gruncie dowodów.
Nie ma dróg innych oprócz drogi dojścia.
Krzaki aż uginają się od odpowiedzi.
Rośnie tu drzewo Słusznego Domysłu
o rozwikłanych wiecznie gałęziach.
Olśniewająco proste drzewo Zrozumienia
przy źródle, co się zwie Ach Więc To Tak.
Im dalej w las, tym szerzej się otwiera
Jeśli jakieś zwątpienie, to wiatr je rozwiewa.
Echo bez wywołania głos zabiera
i wyjaśnia ochoczo tajemnice światów.
W prawo jaskinia, w której leży sens.
W lewo jezioro Głębokiego Przekonania.
Z dna odrywa się prawda i lekko na wierzch wypływa.
Góruje nad doliną Pewność Niewzruszona.
Ze szczytu jej roztacza się Istota Rzeczy.
Mimo powabów wyspa jest bezludna,
a widoczne po brzegach drobne ślady stóp
bez wyjątku zwrócone są w kierunku morza.
Jak gdyby tylko odchodzono stąd
i bezpowrotnie zanurzano się w topieli.
W życiu nie do pojęcia.
The dark universe
… Scientists have theories about dark matter and dark energy — and some observations — but both are poorly understood
1. Is there a dark-matter particle? … Subatomic dark-matter particles, analogous to the particles that make up the visible Universe, would fit nicely into current physics models … Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are the leading candidates
2. Does dark matter interact with anything? … the only known effect is gravitational pull … dark matter seems to interact with other dark matter … for signs of dark matter interacting with ordinary matter
3. Does the cosmological constant explain dark energy? … The simplest explanation for dark energy is that there is a small force that acts in opposition to gravity … theory says that it is 10120 greater than that, a Universe-sized discrepancy
4. What will eventually happen to the Universe? … big rip /16-10-04
key to life’s beginning … material from the surface of an asteroid called Bennu. … Slowly, nothing became everything. … For a cell to survive, it requires three ingredients: nucleic acids, like DNA and RNA, to guide its development; amino acids to build proteins; and a lipid envelope to protect it from the elements. … spacecraft to an asteroid, dig up a pristine sample, and bring it back home … official approach to Bennu won’t begin until August of 2018 /16-10-03
Dark Matter … surprisingly simple relationship between the way galaxies move, and the distribution of ordinary matter within them … if we know where the normal matter is, we know where the Dark Matter is too … Dark Matter and normal matter don’t interact much … about how galaxies form, or about the nature of Dark Matter, or about gravity, or something else … That’s funny /16-10-03
natural selection of bad science … replication crisis … Sociology, economics, climate science and ecology … studying very complex systems with a dearth of formal mathematical theory creates good conditions for low reproducibility … low statistical power … random noise in the data appears to be a real phenomenon of interest … the pressure to publish is corrosive and anti-intellectual /16-09-27
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